ISSN 2146-8346
 

Review Article 


Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States

Rebecca A Vidourek, Keith A. King, Robert A. Yockey, Kelsi Becker, Ashley L. Merianos.

Abstract
As injection drug use increases, needle exchange programs are one method of reducing infectious disease transmission and improve health outcomes for this population. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of needle exchange programs. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to investigate the study aim. Specific inclusion criteria included 1) studies published in English, 2) studies examining needle exchange, 3) studies conducted in the United States, 4) studies conducted between 2007 and 2017, and 5) studies focuses on heroin and injection drug users. Exclusion criteria are also included. A total of 12 studies examining needle exchange programs were found. The research team evaluated all 12 studies and emergent themes included: (1) Reduction in risk behaviors, (2) Sex differences in use and behaviors, (3) Overall perceptions of needle/syringe exchange programs, and (4) Methodological flaws and implementation. This review indicates that NEPs are effective in reducing infectious disease and improving health outcomes. Lack of consistent methods in NEP research may be an issue. In addition, community and health professional attitudes may need to be addressed to enhance effectiveness. Programs and initiatives aimed at educating community members and others may be warranted.

Key words: needle exchange, heroin, opioids, harm reduction


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Vidourek RA, King KA, Yockey RA, Becker K, Merianos AL. Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States. J Behav Health. 2019; 8(3): 111-121. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620


Web Style

Vidourek RA, King KA, Yockey RA, Becker K, Merianos AL. Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States. http://www.jbehavioralhealth.com/?mno=14017 [Access: November 18, 2019]. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Vidourek RA, King KA, Yockey RA, Becker K, Merianos AL. Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States. J Behav Health. 2019; 8(3): 111-121. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Vidourek RA, King KA, Yockey RA, Becker K, Merianos AL. Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States. J Behav Health. (2019), [cited November 18, 2019]; 8(3): 111-121. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620



Harvard Style

Vidourek, R. A., King, . K. A., Yockey, . R. A., Becker, . K. & Merianos, . A. L. (2019) Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States. J Behav Health, 8 (3), 111-121. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620



Turabian Style

Vidourek, Rebecca A, Keith A. King, Robert A. Yockey, Kelsi Becker, and Ashley L. Merianos. 2019. Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States. Journal of Behavioral Health, 8 (3), 111-121. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620



Chicago Style

Vidourek, Rebecca A, Keith A. King, Robert A. Yockey, Kelsi Becker, and Ashley L. Merianos. "Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States." Journal of Behavioral Health 8 (2019), 111-121. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Vidourek, Rebecca A, Keith A. King, Robert A. Yockey, Kelsi Becker, and Ashley L. Merianos. "Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States." Journal of Behavioral Health 8.3 (2019), 111-121. Print. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Vidourek, R. A., King, . K. A., Yockey, . R. A., Becker, . K. & Merianos, . A. L. (2019) Straight to the Point: A Review of the Literature on Needle Exchange Programs in the United States. Journal of Behavioral Health, 8 (3), 111-121. doi:10.5455/jbh.20181023074620





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